Wednesday, March 30, 2016

How to check Likert scale summaries for plausibility

Suppose you are reading a paper that uses Likert scale responses. The paper reports the mean, standard deviation, and number of responses. If we are -- for some reason -- suspicious of a paper, we might ask, "Are these summary statistics possible for this number of responses, for this Likert scale?" Someone asked me this recently, so I wrote some simple code to help check. In this blog post, I outline how the code works.

Suppose we are reading a paper that uses a 5-category Likert scale response (0-4) and they report that for 100 responses, the mean response was .5, and the standard deviation of the responses was 5. I have intentionally chosen these numbers to be impossible: for the mean to be .5, the responses have to be on average near the bottom of the scale. But if the responses are near the bottom of the scale, the standard deviation also has to be very low, because there is a bound at 0. The standard deviation of 5 is much to large for the mean.

Another possible inconsistency arises due to the discreteness of Likert scales. For 10 Likert responses on a 3 point scale (0-2), the mean must be a multiple of .1. This, in turn, imposes a complicated constraint on the standard deviation.

Checking whether a response pattern is possible may be simple for low N, but it gets complex as N increases. Suppose we are wondering, for a 6-item Likert scale (0-5), whether N=94, M=.83, and SD=1.21 are possible summary statistics. There are several ways we could go about this using R.

The code for both is available here: https://gist.github.com/richarddmorey/787d7b7547a736a49c3f

Option 1: Brute force

In the brute force method, we create all possible response patterns (defined as the number of responses in each response category) and then check them, finding the ones closest to our desired response pattern. The code I linked above has two functions: count.ns, which counts the total number of response patterns for a given Likert scale and N. For the summaries above, this will be

> count.ns(N, nlev)
[1] 71523144

or about 72 million response patterns. Brute force isn't pretty, but this job is possible in a minute or two on a modern PC. A note: on some older Windows computers this may exhaust your memory.

The function get.ns will compute all possible response patterns and put them in a matrix. This may take a bit of time (on my Macbook Pro it takes about a minute and a half):

> x = get.ns( 94, nlev=6)
> x[1:10,]
      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6]
 [1,]    0    0    0    0    0   94
 [2,]    0    0    0    0    1   93
 [3,]    0    0    0    0    2   92
 [4,]    0    0    0    0    3   91
 [5,]    0    0    0    0    4   90
 [6,]    0    0    0    0    5   89
 [7,]    0    0    0    0    6   88
 [8,]    0    0    0    0    7   87
 [9,]    0    0    0    0    8   86
[10,]    0    0    0    0    9   85

As you can see, x now contains the possible response patterns for N=94 responses, with K=6 Likert response categories. Above I show the first 10 patterns.

All that remains now is to compute the mean and standard deviation of each response pattern and compare it to the target. We can use the sum of the squared deviations from the target mean and standard deviation to sort the possible solutions. Note that if we wanted both deviations to be less than .005 (to account for rounding to the nearest .01) then we would want solutions that are no greater than 2 times .005^2 = .00005 in their summed squared error.

The code linked above does all the sorting and places the solutions in an object called res. After running the code, the first 10 rows of res are:
> res[1:10,]
      resp0 resp1 resp2 resp3 resp4 resp5      mean sum x^2 std. dev.    sum error
 [1,]    50    30     0     9     4     1 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [2,]    54    22     0    17     0     1 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [3,]    56    18     1    18     1     0 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [4,]    57    15     4    17     1     0 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [5,]    59     3    27     0     4     1 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [6,]    59    10     7    18     0     0 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [7,]    60     1    27     2     3     1 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [8,]    60     7    10    17     0     0 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
 [9,]    41    46     1     0     0     6 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05
[10,]    43    42     2     1     1     5 0.8297872     200  1.206063 1.554821e-05

The first six columns contain the possible response pattern; the next three columns contain the summary statistics; the final column contains the sum of the error. We wished to match M=.83 and SD=1.21, and there are many solutions that yield these summary statistics. There is no reason to be suspicious of these summaries.

Option 2: Linear Inverse Models

The brute force solution above does the job, but it is slow and memory intensive. If we had a 7-item Likert scale, the number of possible response patterns would be about 1.2 billion; add more, and you can see that the amount of time and memory for the brute force method becomes prohibitive. We can actually use an approximate method -- linear inverse models -- to get close.

The idea of linear inverse models is that we can try to minimize a quadratic function, subject to some constraints. In our case, suppose we would like to find proportions of responses that would yield as summary statistics as close as possible to our given summary statistics. We have some reasonable constraints:
  1. Proportions must sum to 1 (equality constraint).
  2. Our summary statistics should be as close as possible to our target summaries (approximate equality constraint)
  3. Proportions must be between 0 and 1 (inequality constraint).
The linSolve package in R allows us to sample approximate solutions for our response proportions according to these constraints. I will not go into detail here about how to define these constraints for the linSolve package; see my code linked above and the linSolve manual. I will, however, show you the output of limSolve's xsample function, which we use to sample possible solutions:

> xs <- limSolve::xsample(A = A, B = B, E = E, F = F, G = G, H = H, sdB = 1)
> xs$X[1:10,]
           [,1]      [,2]       [,3]       [,4]       [,5]       [,6]
 [1,] 0.5231726 0.2862201 0.12002470 0.02459116 0.00000000 0.04599141
 [2,] 0.5231726 0.2862201 0.12002470 0.02459116 0.00000000 0.04599141
 [3,] 0.5231726 0.2862201 0.12002470 0.02459116 0.00000000 0.04599141
 [4,] 0.5231726 0.2862201 0.12002470 0.02459116 0.00000000 0.04599141
 [5,] 0.5231726 0.2862201 0.12002470 0.02459116 0.00000000 0.04599141
 [6,] 0.5085929 0.3226566 0.08151242 0.01938088 0.03202715 0.03582995
 [7,] 0.5085929 0.3226566 0.08151242 0.01938088 0.03202715 0.03582995
 [8,] 0.5085929 0.3226566 0.08151242 0.01938088 0.03202715 0.03582995
 [9,] 0.5860701 0.2541897 0.04073821 0.03497458 0.01822376 0.06580361
[10,] 0.5860701 0.2541897 0.04073821 0.03497458 0.01822376 0.06580361

The possible solutions for the proportions of responses in each response category are in each row of the xs$X element of the output. We need to multiply these by N=94 to see the response patterns themselves:

> xs$X[1:10,]*94
          [,1]     [,2]      [,3]     [,4]     [,5]     [,6]
 [1,] 49.17823 26.90469 11.282322 2.311569 0.000000 4.323192
 [2,] 49.17823 26.90469 11.282322 2.311569 0.000000 4.323192
 [3,] 49.17823 26.90469 11.282322 2.311569 0.000000 4.323192
 [4,] 49.17823 26.90469 11.282322 2.311569 0.000000 4.323192
 [5,] 49.17823 26.90469 11.282322 2.311569 0.000000 4.323192
 [6,] 47.80774 30.32972  7.662167 1.821802 3.010553 3.368016
 [7,] 47.80774 30.32972  7.662167 1.821802 3.010553 3.368016
 [8,] 47.80774 30.32972  7.662167 1.821802 3.010553 3.368016
 [9,] 55.09059 23.89383  3.829392 3.287611 1.713034 6.185539
[10,] 55.09059 23.89383  3.829392 3.287611 1.713034 6.185539

There are several things to notice here. First, there are some duplicates, which is to be expected from the sampling method. Second, these solutions are not integers. Since response patterns must be integers, we would have to round these and make sure they sum to N=94 before testing them to see if their summaries are acceptably close. 

Take the first solution: we might round this to obtain
49 27 11 2 0 4

However, this only sums to N=93, so we need to add 1 somewhere. Suppose we add it to the fourth category, to obtain
49 27 11 3 0 4

The mean response for this response pattern is almost exactly .83, our target mean. The standard deviation is 1.20, which is only .01 away from our target standard deviation. 

Finally, note the similarity of these solutions to the ones we obtained by brute force. The linear inverse model method has gotten us in the neighborhood of the good solutions without the inelegance, time, and memory hogging of the brute force method. However, unlike the brute force method, it is not constrained to integer solutions, so we need to do some post processing. 

Conclusion

Both the brute force and linear inverse model solution yield the same answer: for a 6-item Likert scale (0-5), N=94, M=.83, and SD=1.21 are not problematic summary statistics. Which of these methods one uses depends largely on the situation, but one could even combine them for a more efficient search. As a reminder, the complete code can be found here:  https://gist.github.com/richarddmorey/787d7b7547a736a49c3f.

66 comments:

  1. Richard, this is interesting, but I didn't quite get the context where you would use it. Is it to infer the underlying data given some published results? A test for result plausibility? A data quality check for ongoing data collection? Trying to think of an actual context where I would use it in an analysis.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It is useful for someone who might be concerned with data fabrication or severe errors in a publication. I can't imagine one would use this in everyday research. Someone asked me to help with this problem, so I thought I'd share the code.

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  2. typo as of march 30, 2016: "5-category Likert scale response (0-7)"

    Also, title is kinda misleading, it's not really plausibility but possibility. Something possible may be implausible.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The code serves to check both plausibility and possibility. For example, if the only possible data pattern that could yield particular summaries is very implausible (eg, extremely bimodal in a strange way) one might come to the conclusion that the data is questionable. Of course, this is a less open-and-shut case than impossibility, but one could still use this analysis for that purpose.

      Delete
  3. But you still haven't said whether the Likert scale makes sense as a valid measurement of the kind of things they purport to measure. Is the mean even appropriate? Are the distances between the numbers equal somehow? Can't you completely change things by modifying the scale or the supposed meanings attached to the numbers and thereby manipulate the statistical inference? Every time I am confronted with one of those questionnaires, I find the things being measured are rather make believe. Is anything that's "real" being quantified? Is there a severe critique out there of these measurements? The only one I found is by a guy Mitchell. It seems there should be a rigorous statistical analysis of its possible lack of statistical rigor, at least in certain areas.

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  21. GET RID OF HERPES WITH THE HELP OF HERBAL COCO MIXTURE BY A SPECIALIZED HERBALIST DR OLUBAOLUBA.
    Am so exacted to share a testimony on how i easily get ride of herpes with the help of herbal medication. I have been suffering for genital herpes for so many years i visit different kinds of medical Doctors spent so much money on medical treatment all to know avail i was at the point of forestation when a friend of my mine in Virginia Islands introduce me to Dr OLUBAOLUBA who cured her and husband from herpes with the help of herbal medication she advice me to contact Dr OLUBAOLUBA via olubahivherbalcure@gmail.com which i decided to contact Dr OLUBAOLUBA and explain all my problems to him, he encourage me not to worry and promise to prepare a herbal medication that will completely help me get ride of herpes within 14 days of usage really he prepare the herbal medication and send it to me vie DHL delivery services which i successfully receive and make use of it according to his instructions after 14 days i went for medical health check to God be the glory am completely free from genital herpes, please if you are experiencing outbreak or HSV Vitim i will advise you to contact Dr OLUBAOLUBA via olubahivherbalcure@gmail.com for more information on how you can easily get ride of herpes with the help of herbal medication.

    ReplyDelete
  22. 5 years ago I had warts, I was treated with some liquid applied to the warts they continued to grow and spread... The next 2 doctors did laser surgery to remove them. 1 year after the surgery, they grew back close to where the 1st ones were' so I was finally told it was hpv. I have had it for very long time, I contract it from my cheated boyfriend and I found out he was also infected and I end up the relationship between us. the warts was so embarrasses because it started spreading all over I have be dealing with this things for very long time the last treatment I take was About 2 years ago I applied natural treatment from Dr onokun herbal cure, a week after applying the treatment all the warts was gone. it's now 2 years and some months I don't have single wart or any symptoms of hpv. wow"" it's great, Dr onokun has finally cured me. Anyone living with hpv contact Dr onokun for natural treatment.
    His email address: dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com‎ or whatsapp him +2349064844957

    ReplyDelete
  23. I am very much delighted to every viewers that is reading this,i want to inform the whole public of how me and my lover got cured from herpes simplex virus,i was diagnosed of herpes since 4years ago and also find out that my herpes virus also effected my lover,this disease started circulating all over my body, and i have also taken treatment from my doctor,few weeks back i came on the net to see if i will be able to get any information as to curing this disease, on my search i saw various testimony of someone who was healed from herpes simplex virus by the great man called Dr IYOHA and i told my lover about it and without any hesitation, i contacted his email: driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com, i wrote him and and he guided me,i asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for the both of us and indeed 1week after me and my lover started using the medicine, we were completely cured no dot was found on my body and of my lover,so dear viewer why wasting your time living with this STD infection you can contact him now he is able to cure any kinds of disease,contact his via

    Email: driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com

    Call +1 (407) 337-9869
    He also cure these virus
    {1}HIV And AIDS
    {2}Diabetes
    {3}Epilepsy
    {4} Blood Cancer
    {5} HPV
    {6} ALS
    {7} Hepatitis
    {8} Vitiligo

    ReplyDelete

  24. Thank you for sharing such valuable information.

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  26. It is an excellent article which helps me a lot. Thanks for sharing the marvelous info.

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  27. My name is VICTORIA KENT from England, My husband and I have been married for about 6yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone else. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested DR OGUDUGU can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me 48hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since DR OGUDUGU is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you.

    Here’s his contact: greatogudugu@gmail.com or for easy communication contact him on whatsApp him +2348139793075

    ReplyDelete
  28. Hello everyone, i want to tell about how i was cured of Herpes an embarrassing genital disease by a Doctor called Ehizele Omon. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on STD and i saw comment of people talking about how Doctor Ehizele Omon cured them. I Was scared because i never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i having no hope of been cured of Herpes and other infections so i decided to contact him with his email that was listed on the comment email: drehizeleherbalhomeofsolution@gmail.com when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem. I pray for you Dr. Ehizele Omon, God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and a honest man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any Sexually Transmitted disease please Email: drehizeleherbalhomeofsolution@gmail.com . He will definitely put an end to your embarrassment.

    ReplyDelete
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  30. Hello not used to putting things on websites, so bear with me. I Saw Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com address in a magazine, had to leave him a message as he didnt answer the phone first time, as soon as I heard his voice on the phone when he phoned me back, I knew this was a Man I could totally rely on and trust. And I was highly troubled as I was infected with herpes and it broke me down and I became very sad and worried. I needed help so badly that I was ready to do anything to cure my life. So I briefly explained my situation to him and he took all the details and began working for me. I was very skeptical at same time because I had never done anything like this in my life. I was very happy he kept in contact with me and answered me anytime I needed his attention and within a few days later I got my self cured and all my problems were put right by this wonderful Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com. If you are facing difficulties I would advise you to contact Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com and get all your PROBLEMS solved call or whatsapp him with +2348158847627

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  31. Hello not used to putting things on websites, so bear with me. I Saw Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com address in a magazine, had to leave him a message as he didnt answer the phone first time, as soon as I heard his voice on the phone when he phoned me back, I knew this was a Man I could totally rely on and trust. And I was highly troubled as I was infected with herpes and it broke me down and I became very sad and worried. I needed help so badly that I was ready to do anything to cure my life. So I briefly explained my situation to him and he took all the details and began working for me. I was very skeptical at same time because I had never done anything like this in my life. I was very happy he kept in contact with me and answered me anytime I needed his attention and within a few days later I got my self cured and all my problems were put right by this wonderful Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com. If you are facing difficulties I would advise you to contact Dr.Otor of via: otorspelltemple@gmail.com and get all your PROBLEMS solved call or whatsapp him with +2348158847627..

    ReplyDelete
  32. i am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how Chief Dr Lucky cured my HPV virus that have been in my body since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HPV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain, i was checking for solution on the internet then miraculously came across Chief Dr Lucky the powerful herbalist that cure HPV INFECTION,then i contacted his email, i explained everything to him and he prepared a herbal cure and send it to me that was how i got cured from HPV disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why waiting and be suffering with this HPV virus when there is someone like Chief Dr Lucky that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS C VIRUS,HERPES VIRUS,ALS VIRUS. you can contact his via email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com .Whats App or call +2349065398067

    ReplyDelete
  33. MY HERPES DISEASE WAS CURED BY PROPHET SAKURA, WITH HIS HERBAL HEALING
    SPELL (Dr.sakuraspellalter@gmail.com ).(+2348110114739
    DR sakura is the only Dr who could ever
    get my HERPES cured with his healing spell, I have tried almost
    everything but I couldn't find any solution on my disease, despite all
    these happening to me, I always spend a lot to buy drugs from
    hospital and taking some several medications but no relieve, until one
    day I was just browsing on the internet when I come across a great
    post of! osas ruth! who truly said that she was been diagnose with herpes
    and was healed that very week through the help of these great powerful
    healing spell doctor, sometime I really wonder why people called him
    Papa sakura, I never knew it was all because of the great and perfect
    work that he has been doing that is causing all this. so I quickly
    contacted him, and he ask me some few questions and he said a thing I
    will never forget that anyone who contacted him is! always getting his
    or her healing in just 8 hours after doing all he ask me , so I was
    amazed all the time I heard that from him, so I did all things only to
    see that at the very day which he said I will be healed, all the
    strength that has left me before rush back and I becomes very strong
    and healthy, this disease almost kills my life all because of me, so I
    went to hospital to give the final test to the disease and the doctor
    said I am am alright now , I am very amazed and happy about the healing
    Dr sakura gave to me and this my mail if you need more information
    mercybabe555@gmail.com and he also cure all manner of diseases

    ReplyDelete
  34. I was diagnosed of Herpes in 2014 and I have tried all possible means to get the cure but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a Herbal Doctor(Dr Saibu) who prepares herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contacted Dr Saibu through his Email: drsaibu2@gmail.com he guided me and prepared a herbal medicine and sent it to me via courier Delivery service,when i received the package (herbal medicine) He gave me instructions on how to consume it,i started using it as instructed and i stooped getting outbreaks and the sores started vanishing, could you believe i was cured of this deadly virus within 10-14 days of using this REMEDY,couldn't believe the healing at first until i went for a check-up,indeed i was tested negative to HERPES.Contact this great herbal Doctor today via Email: drsaibu2@gmail.com and get cured permanently. add him on whatsapp +2348064438762 or Call/Text: me via +1(312) 361-5917

    ReplyDelete
  35. Dr Itua cure my HIV, I have been a ARV Consumption for 10 years. i have been in pains until i came across Dr Itua on blogs site.I emailed him about my details of my HIV and my location i explained every thing to him and he told me that there is nothing to be scared of that he will cured me, he gave me guarantee,He ask me to pay for items fees so when i'm cured I will show gratitude I did and giving testimony of his healing herbs is what I'm going to do for the rest of you out there having HIV and other disease can see the good work of Dr Itua.I received his herbal medicine through EMS Courier service who delivered to my post office within 5 working days.Dr Itua is an honest man and I appreciate him for his good work.My GrandMa called him to appreciate him and rest of my friends did too,Is a joy to me that I'm free of taking Pills and having that fat belle is a nightmare.you will understand what i'm talking about if you have same problem I was having then not now though.I'm free and healthy Big Thanks To Dr Itua Herbal Center.I have his calendar too that he recently sent me,He Cure all kind disease Like,Cancer,Herpes,Hiv,Hepatitis B,Fibroid,Diabetes,Dercum,Copd ,and also Bring back Ex Lover Back..Here his Contact .drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Or Whats_app Number +2348149277967

    ReplyDelete
  36. Irrespective of receiving daily oral or future injectable depot therapies, these require health care visits for medication and monitoring of safety and response. If patients are treated early enough, before a lot of immune system damage has occurred, life expectancy is close to normal, as long as they remain on successful treatment. However, when patients stop therapy, virus rebounds to high levels in most patients, sometimes associated with severe illness because i have gone through this and even an increased risk of death. The aim of “cure”is ongoing but i still do believe my government made millions of ARV drugs instead of finding a cure. for ongoing therapy and monitoring. ARV alone cannot cure HIV as among the cells that are infected are very long-living CD4 memory cells and possibly other cells that act as long-term reservoirs. HIV can hide in these cells without being detected by the body’s immune system. Therefore even when ART completely blocks subsequent rounds of infection of cells, reservoirs that have been infected before therapy initiation persist and from these reservoirs HIV rebounds if therapy is stopped. “Cure” could either mean an eradication cure, which means to completely rid the body of reservoir virus or a functional HIV cure, where HIV may remain in reservoir cells but rebound to high levels is prevented after therapy interruption.Dr Itua Herbal Medicine makes me believes there is a hope for people suffering from,Parkinson's disease,Schizophrenia,Cancer,Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity
    Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.Fatal Familial Insomnia Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Epilepsy Dupuytren's disease,Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor Diabetes ,Coeliac disease,Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease,Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Ataxia,Arthritis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic diseases.Hiv_ Aids,Herpes,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Copd,Diabetes,Hepatitis,I read about him online how he cure Tasha and Tara so i contacted him on drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com even talked on whatsapps +2348149277967 believe me it was easy i drank his herbal medicine for two weeks and i was cured just like that isn't Dr Itua a wonder man? Yes he is! I thank him so much so i will advise if you are suffering from one of those diseases Pls do contact him he's a nice man.

    ReplyDelete
  37. I GOT CURED FROM HERPES,AFTER USING DR INIBOKU HERBAL MEDICINE.

    I caught genital herpes from my ex boyfriend who never had any symptoms. I have had it for 4 months now,and it has affected my life. I have told my husband who I trusted about it and I have never had a bad reaction, it has affected my new relationships with my husband. People think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another. I would like to advise people on how i get rid of my herpes.i was reading a comment on the internet,and i saw a testimony posted by a woman from island that she get rid of her herpes with the help of doctor iniboku. so i was so happy when i saw that post,that his herbal medication is free.i quickly collect the herbal doctor email and i email him within 5 hr he respond to my email.i explain things to him he told me not to worry that i should fill his herbal form wish i did.he only request for little money that he will use to buy the items for the preparation of the herbal medicine,wish i send to him because the pain was too much for me to bear.after some days he told me that he has prepare the herbal medicine,that i should send him my address that he want to sent it to me via DHL or FED-EX that was how i got the herbal medication.and i use it as i was told.after few days i found out that my herpes was no more.when some of my friend who has herpes saw me they were surprise and i also introduce them to the man and they are also cure from the same herpes.if you have herpes,kindly contact doctor iniboku via this email drinibokuspelltemple@gmail.com or whatsapp +2347059186346

    ReplyDelete
  38. HPV cure with the help of a herbal medication by Dr Ben for help contact now to get your own cure

    I think this site is useful in all that is suffering from HPV can show it to their friends and family and then there is a greater understanding I don't just know the reason why some people are finding it difficult to believe that, there is a cure for HPV, I have been suffering from HPV since 9month now but today I am happy that i am cure from it with the herbal medicine of Dr.Ben the great healer sent to me,I was browsing the internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr.Ben cure his HPV I was so much in need of getting his treatment so I contacted Dr.Ben for the HPV cure.I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great herbal Dr Ben who has the cure to all types of virus contact Dr Ben on email address:


    Benherbalcure@gmail.com
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    Website http://benherbalcure.webs.com/

    ReplyDelete
  39. I was diagnosed 2 years ago at age 63. Symptoms were tremor in right leg, loss of handwriting ability, and soft voice. I also have difficulty rising from a seated position and have balance issues. I started out taking only Azilect, then Mirapex, and 6 months ago Sinemet. Several months ago I started falling frequently, hence the reason for Sinemet. I tried every shots available but nothing worked. In June 2018, my neurologist and I decided to go with natural treatment and was introduced to Natural Herbal Gardens natural organic Parkinson’s Herbal formula, i had a total decline of symptoms with this treatment, the Tremor, falling frequently, stiffness, body weakness, balance issues, depression and others has subsided. Visit Natural Herbal Gardens official website ww w. naturalherbalgardens. com. This treatment is a breakthrough for all suffering from Parkinson’s, don’t give up Hope. Keep Sharing the Awareness, herbs are truly gift from God.

    ReplyDelete
  40. My life is beautiful thanks to you, Mein Helfer. Lord Jesus in my life as a candle light in the darkness. You showed me the meaning of faith with your words. I know that even when I cried all day thinking about how to recover, you were not sleeping, you were dear to me. I contacted the herbal center Dr Itua, who lived in West Africa. A friend of mine here in Hamburg is also from Africa. She told me about African herbs but I was nervous. I am very afraid when it comes to Africa because I heard many terrible things about them because of my Christianity. god for direction, take a bold step and get in touch with him in the email and then move to WhatsApp, he asked me if I can come for treatment or I want a delivery, I told him I wanted to know him I buy ticket in 2 ways to Africa To meet Dr. Itua, I went there and I was speechless from the people I saw there. Patent, sick people. Itua is a god sent to the world, I told my pastor about what I am doing, Pastor Bill Scheer. We have a real battle beautifully with Spirit and Flesh. Adoration that same night. He prayed for me and asked me to lead. I spent 2 weeks and 2 days in Africa at Dr Itua Herbal Home. After the treatment, he asked me to meet his nurse for the HIV test when I did it. It was negative, I asked my friend to take me to another nearby hospital when I arrived, it was negative. I was overwhite with the result, but happy inside of me. We went with Dr. Itua, I thank him but I explain that I do not have enough to show him my appreciation, that he understands my situation, but I promise that he will testify about his good work. Thank God for my dear friend, Emma, I know I could be reading this now, I want to thank you. And many thanks to Dr. Itua Herbal Center. He gave me his calendar that I put on my wall in my house. Dr. Itua can also cure the following diseases ... Cancer, HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis B, Inflammatory Liver, Diabetis, Fribroid,Parkinson's disease,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Fibromyalgia, recover your ex. You can contact him by email or whatsapp, @ .. drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com, phone number .. + 2348149277967 .. He is a good doctor, talk to him kindly. I'm sure he will also listen to you.

    ReplyDelete
  41. Nice Blog

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  42. Hello, I just wanted to mention I have not had an outbreak of HSV 2 for almost 3 years now (since the first year I got it). When I first contacted it (did go to doctor and got confirmed) I had a couple outbreaks that year (very painful) and then no outbreaks ever again. Like I said it has been almost tow years. The only thing I can think I did was I used essential oil applications on my sacrum. I did take anti viral meds the doctor gave me for a couple weeks after the first outbreak to take care of the acute symptoms (I didn’t take them for the 2nd outbreak later that year and now this happened in my life I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that there could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how Dr.adeola herbal cure and sent to them and they were cured. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the herpes the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain, and i have just went for text last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes on my system. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine Dr.adeola I am so happy as i am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that there is no cure for herpes that is Not true, Here is his Email dradeolaherbalhome@gmail.com OR whatsapp him on +2349027752454...OR inbox me on whatapp on +1 (758) 284-1397.....

    ReplyDelete
  43. 5 years ago I had warts, I was treated with some liquid applied to the warts they continued to grow and spread... The next 2 doctors did laser surgery to remove them. 1 year after the surgery, they grew back close to where the 1st ones were' so I was finally told it was hpv. I have had it for very long time, I contract it from my cheated boyfriend and I found out he was also infected and I end up the relationship between us. the warts was so embarrasses because it started spreading all over I have be dealing with this things for very long time the last treatment I take was About 2 years ago I applied natural treatment from Dr onokun herbal cure, a week after applying the treatment all the warts was gone. it's now 2 years and some months I don't have single wart or any symptoms of hpv. wow"" it's great, Dr onokun has finally cured me. Anyone living with hpv contact Dr onokun for natural treatment.
    His email address: dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com‎

    ReplyDelete
  44. Hello everyone. I was heartbroken because i had very small penis, not nice to satisfy a woman. i saw some few comments about this specialist called Dr OLU and decided to email him on drolusoutionhome@gmail.com
    so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal pills for Penis t, Enlargement Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, ” and now it just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer and am so happy..feel free to contact DR OLU on(Drolusolutionhome@gmail.com) or whatsapp him on this number +2348140654426

    ReplyDelete
  45. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on sites of how DR OLU prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email:drolusolutionhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +2348040654426

    ReplyDelete
  46. Dr Itua cure my HIV, I have been a ARV Consumption for 10 years. i have been in pains until i came across Dr Itua on blogs site.I emailed him about my details of my HIV and my location i explained every thing to him and he told me that there is nothing to be scared of that he will cured me, he gave me guarantee,He ask me to pay for items fees so when i'm cured I will show gratitude I did and giving testimony of his healing herbs is what I'm going to do for the rest of you out there having HIV and other disease can see the good work of Dr Itua.I received his herbal medicine through EMS Courier service who delivered to my post office within 5 working days.Dr Itua is an honest man and I appreciate him for his good work.My GrandMa called him to appreciate him and rest of my friends did too,Is a joy to me that I'm free of taking Pills and having that fat belle is a nightmare.you will understand what i'm talking about if you have same problem I was having then not now though.I'm free and healthy Big Thanks To Dr Itua Herbal Center.I have his calendar too that he recently sent me,He Cure all kind disease Like,Cancer,Herpes,Hiv,Hepatitis B,Fibroid,Diabetes,Dercum,Copd ,and also Bring back Ex Lover Back..Here his Contact .drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Or Whats_app Number +2348149277967

    ReplyDelete
  47. HPV cure with the help of a herbal medication by Dr Ben for help contact now to get your own cure

    I think this site is useful in all that is suffering from HPV can show it to their friends and family and then there is a greater understanding I don't just know the reason why some people are finding it difficult to believe that, there is a cure for HPV, I have been suffering from HPV since 9month now but today I am happy that i am cure from it with the herbal medicine of Dr.Ben the great healer sent to me,I was browsing the internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr.Ben cure his HPV I was so much in need of getting his treatment so I contacted Dr.Ben for the HPV cure.I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great herbal Dr Ben who has the cure to all types of virus contact Dr Ben on email address:

    Benherbalcure@gmail.com
    WhatsApp +2347064294395
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  48. Hello viewers all over the globe I am Caroline from USA, I have been suffering from HPV virus for the past 2 years now, I have went to several hospitals taking different treatment from doctors but still yet no improvement, I have done research on internet seen different testimony how some people get cured but I don’t believe does testimony again because of what happened to me I have contacted so many doctors online, they all ask for is money I was scammed by 3 different doctors over $2000 still yet I was not cured so I tell a friend of mine about my problem she tells me to contact dr oso that his very good in healing people with his medicine that she was cured from herpes by this some Dr oso I don’t believe her on thing she showed me her results on how was cured she gives me his Email few weeks later I contacted him and tell him about my problem he tell me not to be worried that his going to prepare the medicine and send to me through EMS delivery so after some days I received the medicine and I was take it as he Instructed me few weeks later I go for check up to no if I’m finally cured, could you believe me when the results come out I was negative I jump up I was very happy. Please my dear friends if you have any kind of diseases or virus please contact Drosohaberhome@gmail.com/ dr.osoherberhome1@outlook.com or WhatsApp +2348162084839. you can email me to for more info about dr oso . toddcaroline79@gmail.com. Thank you so much Dr oso I’m forever great full please my dear friends don’t believe on does comment online they all fake doctors. only Dr oso I see real. Please beware of scammers.

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  49. I was diagnosed of herpes virus in 2016, I have tried all possible means to get cure but all my effort proved abortive, until a friend of mine introduced me to a herbal doctor called dr. Alli, who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including herpes virus (Herpes), when i contacted this herbal doctor via his email allispellhelp1@gmail.com, he sent me herpes virus herbal medicine via courier service, when i received the herbal medicine he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed i was totally cured from the virus within 3 weeks of usage. Contact this great herbal doctor via [allispellhelp1@gmail.com] or whatsApp +2348100772528 him today to get your cure.

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